Investing Terms

Stocks & Financials

  1. Ask: This is the lowest price an owner is willing to accept for an asset.
  2. Asset: Something that has the potential to earn money for you. It is something you own that can reasonably be expected to produce something for you. Assets include stocks, bonds, commodities, real estate, and other investments.
  3. Asset allocation: One of the ways to divide up the holdings in your portfolio is to do so by asset class. The idea is that different assets perform opposite to each other, and you can limit some of your risk by allocating your portfolio according to the type of asset you have.
  4. Balance sheet: A statement showing what a company owns, as well as the liabilities the company has, and stating the outstanding shareholder equity.
  5. Bear market: This is a market that is falling. A bear market has a downward trend, and someone who believes the market is headed for a drop is often referred to as a “bear.”
  6. Bid: This is the highest price a buyer is willing to pay when buying an investment. Today, electronic trading makes it possible for ask and bid to be matched up automatically and almost instantly.
  7. Blue chip: You might hear reporters and others refer to “blue chip stocks.” Blue chips are companies that have a long history of good earnings, good balance sheets, and even regularly increasing dividends. These are solid companies that may not be exciting, but they are likely to provide reasonable returns over time.
  8. Bond: This is an investment that represents what an entity owes you. Essentially, you lend money to a government or a company, and you are promised that the principal will be returned plus interest.
  9. Book value: If you take all the liabilities a company has, and subtract them from the assets and common stock equity of the company, what you would have left over is the book value. Most of the time, the book value is used as part of an evaluative measure, rather than being truly related to a company’s market value.
  10. Broker: This is the entity that buys and sells investments on your behalf. Usually, you pay a fee for this service. In the case of an online discount broker, you often pay a flat commission per trade. Other brokers, especially if they also manage your assets as a whole, just charge a percentage of your assets each year.
  11. Bull market: This is a market that is trending higher, likely to gain. If you think that the market is going to go up, you are considered a “bull.” Additionally, the term, like bear, can be applied to how you feel about an individual investment. If you are “bullish” on a specific company, it means you think the stock price will rise.
  12. Capital gain (or loss): This is the difference between what you bought an investment for and what you sell if for. If you buy 100 shares of a stock at $10 a share (spending $1,000) and sell your shares later for $25 a share ($2,500), you have a capital gain of $1,500. A loss occurs when you sell for less than you paid. So, if you sell this stock for $5 instead ($500), you have a capital loss of $500).
  13. Diversity: A portfolio characteristic that ensures you have more than one type of asset. It also means choosing to buy investments in different sectors, industries, or geographic locations.
  14. Dividend: In some cases, a company will offer to divide up some of its income among shareholders. Dividends can be paid once, as a special use of them, or they can be paid more regularly, such as monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually.
  15. Dow Jones Industrial Average: This average includes a price-weighted list of 30 blue chip stocks. While there are only 30 companies included on the list, many people think of the Dow when they here that “the stock market” gained or lost. The Dow is often used as a gauge of the health of the stock market as a whole, even though it is only a very small portion.
  16. Exchange: This is a place where investments, including stocks, bonds, commodities, and other assets are bought and sold. It’s a place where brokers (buyers and sellers) and others can connect. While many exchanges of “trading floors” most orders these days are executed electronically.
  17. Index: A tool used to statistically measure the progress of a group of stocks that share characteristics. This can include a group of stocks, a group of bonds, or a group of other assets.
  18. Margin: This is essentially borrowed money used to make an investment. You can get credit from a broker to buy more than you have actually money for. The hope is that you will make enough money that you will be able to repay the borrowed amount from your earnings.
  19. Market capitalization: The market cap of a company is figured by multiplying its current share price by the number of shares outstanding. The largest companies have market caps in the billions.
  20. NASDAQ: This is a stock exchange that focuses on trading the stocks of technology companies.
  21. New York Stock Exchange: One of the most famous stock exchanges is the NYSE, which trades stocks in companies all over the United States, and even includes stocks of some international companies.
  22. P/E ratio: This measure reflects how much you pay for each dollar that company earns. A company often reports profits on a per-share basis. So a company might say that it has earned $5 per share. If that same stock is selling for $75 a share on the market, you divide $75 by $5 to come up with a P/E ratio of 15. The higher a P/E ratio is, the more there is expectations for higher earnings.
  23. Registered Investment Advisor (RIA): A financial investment advisor that has been through certain training, and that agrees to abide by certain rules, including ensuring that recommendations, and trades made on your behalf are in your best interest.
  24. Stock: A stock represents ownership in a company. Companies divide their ownership stakes into shares, and amount of shares you purchase indicates your level of ownership in the company. Stock is bought in the hopes that the company will be successful, and more people will want a stake, so you can sell your stake later at a higher price than you paid.
  25. Yield: This is associated with dividend investing. Your yield represents the ratio between the stock price paid and the dividend paid. A stock trading at $100 per share, with a dividend that amounts to $5 per year, you divide the $5 by $100 and turn it into a percentage. In this case, the yield would be 5%.




Amortization – a system of paying off the mortgage that combines interest and principal for your payments, rather than just paying off the interest first. Typically you pay more interest at the beginning, and more principal at the end of a loan term.

Assessed Value – the dollar value assigned to your home by a public tax assessor for the purposes of city/state taxes. This number is typically different from the value assigned by a private home appraisor, and sometimes different from what a home will sell for on the market.

Cash Reserves – The money the buyer has left over after the down payment and all those closing costs.

Closing – the meeting in which the sale of a property is completed. Buyers and sellers sign documents and exchange funds, this is sometimes called a settlement.

Closing Costs – all of the miscellaneous expenses and fees paid by the buyer (and sometimes seller) when a deal closes. Some examples of these expenses include commissions, mortgage fees, recording fees, title insurance, and more.

CMA – this stands for Comparative Market Analysis, sometimes these are also referred to as ‘comps.’ This is a report of similar homes in the area that were recently sold or are currently on the market. This is used to help determine an accurate value for your home.

Contingency – a clause in an agreement that keeps things from being legally binding unless a condition is met. The most common contingencies on a purchase contract are the right to have a home inspection before buying the home or obtain acceptable financing from a lender.

Earnest Money Deposit – usually given with an offer, this is a payment to a seller to show you are serious about buying the property. It is counted toward the downpayment, and refundable if the offer is not accepted.

Equity – the difference between the home’s fair market value, and the unpaid balance of the mortgage. Equity increases over the life of the loan. For example, if your home is worth $100,000, and you owe $50,000 still, the other $50,000 is your equity.

Escrow – an account setup by the lender that receives monthly payments from buyers to pay for things like insurance or taxes.

Home Warranty – similar to any warranty, sellers and buyers can pay a fee to protect the home against future issues, like plumbing or heating.

Interest –  the cost the lender charges you for borrowing money. Usually referred to as a rate. For more on interest, go HERE.

MLS – Multiple Listing Service. An MLS is an organization that collects and distributes home sale information to its members. MLS data is used to populate home listing sites, like this one. Membership is not open to the public, and there is more than one MLS covering the country.

Mortgage Broker – An independent individual (or company) who brings together borrowers and lenders together. Unlike a mortgage banker, a mortgage broker does not fund the loan. Instead, the broker originates and processes the loan, and places it with a funding source, such as a bank.

Principal – The amount of money borrowed to buy your home. If you purchased a $100,000 home with a 10% down payment, your principal is $90,000. That is the amount you need to pay back, plus interest.

Point – A point is equal to 1% of the value of a mortgage loan. Buyers have the option of buying discount points by paying more money up front in exchange for a lower interest rate.

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) – PMI is an insurance premium paid by the buyer to the lender to protect the lender if you are unable to pay your mortgage. Once you have 20% equity in the home, this insurance is discontinued. PMI allows people to have access to homes that they don’t yet have a 20% down payment for.

Real Estate Agent – a professional who has earned a real estate license in their state, usually it requires a minimum number of classes and a test, though requirements vary by state. Agents work under the supervision of a broker.

REALTOR: A Realtor is a real estate agent that is a member of the national association of Realtors. This means they uphold the standards and code of ethics of the organization. Not all agents are Realtors.

Real Estate Broker – a Real Estate Agent that has taken education beyond the agent level and passed a state broker’s exam, as well as meet the minimum number of transactions required by their state. Broker’s can be affiliated with an agency, work on their own, or can hire agents to work for them.

Title Insurance –  an insurance policy that protects owner or lender interest in the property from unexpected claims of ownership. Since this topic could be a whole post in itself, more information is available HERE.

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